James Stuart, known as King James VI in Scotland and King James the I in England and Ireland, issued an edict in 1603 that abolished the surname MacGregor and declared that everyone named MacGregor or Gregor must renounce the name or suffer death, all in response to the murder of the King’s Forester, who himself had hanged some MacGregors for poaching. A bounty of 1,000 merks (apparently a great deal of money) was placed on the heads of the clan leaders, with 100 merks for other members of the clan.
This the origin of Rob Roy, also known as Red MacGregor, or Robert Roy MacGregor. For the next 200 years The Clan Gregor endured this persecution. Men were killed while women and children were sold into slavery in the New World. Finally, in 1774, the Act of Proscription against the clan was repealed.
A study conducted by researchers at the Institute of Human Genetics at the Center for Life in Newcastle, England discovered that only 50% of males with the last name Robson can be traced back to a recent single ancestor.The research, commissioned to create a new exhibit called â€œThe Robson Encyclopedia,â€ compared 12 markers from the Y-chromosomes of 100 male volunteer Robsons.
Apparently the Border Reiver clan of the Robsons in the Tyne Valley was notorious in the 1600â€™s and was made famous in a book called â€œThe Steel Bonnetsâ€ by George MacDonald Fraser.According to one site:
â€œThe term Border Reivers describes a number of English and Scottish families who fought a seemingly endless series of bloody confrontations from the 13th Century to the mid 17th Century. Sheep stealing and burning each otherâ€™s homes were part of everyday Border Reiver life – they were rugged, tough people who lived by their own laws.â€
Yesterday The Jewish Press announced the â€œKohen and Levi Conference: A Gathering of the Tribe.â€The conference, to be held on July 15-19, 2007, is hosted in Jerusalem by The Center for Kohanim.The Center was founded in 1985 to â€œpromote identity and knowledge among Kohanim the world over, and increase their feelings of awareness and commitment to their heritage as Kohanim.â€The conference has a main page, a press release, and a brochure (pdf).According to the press release:
Recent scientific research and DNA testing has proven that todayâ€™s descendents of the biblical Kohanim are genetically related. Molecular geneticists have discovered the â€œCohen Modal Haplotypeâ€ which is a Y- chromosome DNA lineage signature shared by a majority of both Ashkenazi and Sephardi Kohanim. This indicates a direct patrilineal descent of present-day Kohanim from a single ancient ancestor, genetically dated to have lived approximately 3,300 years ago, a time corresponding to the Exodus from Egypt.
Artist Ulla Plougmand-Turner has created paintings of The Seven Daughters of Eve using paint that contains reconstructed ancient DNA manufactured by Oxford Ancestors.
Most genetic genealogists are very familiar with Bryan Sykesâ€™ Seven Daughters of Eve, the 7 â€œclan mothersâ€ (Ursula, Xenia, Helena, Velda, Tara, Katrine, and Jasmine) from whom the majority of Europeans are believed to obtain their mitochondrial DNA.Note that there are many more â€œclan mothersâ€ located throughout the world â€“ I, for instance, am descended from clan Aiyana.
The exhibition was commissioned by Professor Bryan Sykes, the head of Human Genetics at Oxford University and the founder of Oxford Ancestors.Prof. Sykes met Ms. Plougmand-Turner by chance when he was taking DNA samples from villagers at Longleat.
The L.A. Daily News published an article yesterday titled â€œDNA testing helps find lost legacies and cements connections.â€
The article discusses the success some individuals have had using genetic genealogy. For example, Edwin Blancher suspected that his oldest known relative changed his surname from Blanchard to Blancher.DNA testing suggests that he did.
And Doug Miller of California has confirmed that neither his Y chromosome nor his mtDNA are of Native American descent.
[Thanks to Hsien at EyeonDNA for the article!]
Yesterday, the latest edition of Gene Genie was posted at EyeonDNA.Â There’s a lot of interesting articles about a number of different topics in genetics.Â If you have a moment, go check it out.
I have to admit, during the past few months I’ve worried about future of those companies offering genetic genealogy testing (there are at least 31; see the sidebar). I know it’s a funny thing to worry about, but I guess I’m just trying to figure out what the future holds for this type of testing.
My biggest concern, of course, is that whole-genome sequencing will signal the end of many of these companies, at least the ones who do not offer whole-genome sequencing. (By the way, are you sick of hearing about genomic sequencing yet? Lately I feel like I should change the name of the blog to “The Genomic Genealogist” or something like that!). Some might ask, for instance, why one should bother ordering multiple tests once whole-genome sequencing is affordable. And it’s a great question, because we are getting sooo close to that goal!
The Forbes Series â€“ Forbes has an excellent series of articles relating to genomic sequencing and genetic genealogy.It is well-timed and full of interesting things to think about.I highly recommend reading them all!
1. Will You Get Cancer?
2. The Telltale Tumor
3. Never Mind You â€“ What About Me?
4. Genes of the Rich and Famous
5. Genealogy Gets Genetic
6. 12 Genes That Could Change Your Life
â€œGenome of DNA Pioneer is Decipheredâ€-This is a write-up by Nicholas Wade in the New York Times.Unfortunately, Mr, Wade used the word â€˜decipheredâ€™ in the article rather than â€˜sequencedâ€™.Iâ€™m not convinced that this was his choice, but heâ€™s getting some flack for it.In any event, it appears that Watsonâ€™s sequence took 2 DVDs rather than just one!Â There’s a write-up at Nature News as well.
Admit it, you’re dying to get your hands on Watson’s genome, aren’t you? Who isn’t?! Yesterday James Watson was handed his sequenced genome on DVD from 454 Life Sciences. There’s a great press release from the Baylor College of Medicine where the ceremony took place.
In a very big day for genetics and human beings alike, Watson was the first person to be handed his entire genetic sequence (for those in the know, Venter only received some or most of his sequence according to most sources).
Amazingly, according to the press release, the genome was sequenced over two months for $1 million. Incredible, considering the Human Genome Project took years and billions of dollars, and even Venter’s project took $300 million.
Earlier today I wrote about how 23andMe used genetic genealogy to confirm that Warren Buffett and Jimmy Buffett are not recently related via their Y chromosome. I also mentioned that this was a great way to introduce the company (as well as genetic genealogy) to the masses.
This evening I saw a story posted at The Motley Fool entitled “Warren Buffett is No Parrothead.” Similar to the story that I linked to this morning, it appears that the author is not familiar with genetic genealogy:
“However, solving the Buffett mystery illustrates how a stake in 23andMe is a good fit in Google’s portfolio. The one thing that blows me away here is that a simple spit test was enough to uproot a family tree deep enough to find an ancestral link before surnames were even around.