Often, at least at the current stage of genetic genealogy, DNA sequencing does not reveal enough information to identify a personâ€™s particular Y chromosome or mtDNA haplogroup.The example I will be using in this post is Haplogroup E.Haplogroup E split into E1, E2, and E3 about 28,000 years ago.Current tests offered by many sequencing companies are able to place a person in the general â€œEâ€ Haplogroup, but might be unable to determine exactly which subclade of E a person descends from.In such a situation, a â€œDeep SNPâ€ test can be used to fill in that information.
A SNP is single nucleotide polymorphism, or a change in the DNA sequence at a single nucleotide.For instance, the switch of a C for G, a cytosine for a guanine.You can see a chart of some of the most common SNPs tested for genetic genealogy here or here.The Deep SNP test (which can go by other names) analyzes a personâ€™s DNA, such as the Y chromosome, for the presence or lack of these mutation(s).
A June 18th article from MSNBC about online family trees and social networking revealed another tidbit about 23andMe. According to the article (and no source of the information is given), 23andMe “plans to charge $1,000 for an extensive genetic profile and features to help track down lost relatives.”
I’m not exactly sure what that means. Are distant cousins lost relatives? Or is the unknown birth mother of an adopted child a lost relative? Given 23andMe’s interest in genetic genealogy, I’m guessing that it’s for general interest, rather than just for people looking for birth parents. Or perhaps they’re doing both – it’s really not much of a difference. It’s all about building a database, of course. Without the ability to compare results to a database, the usefulness of DNA testing for genealogical purposes can still be informative but is limited.
Yesterday was another big day for genetic genealogy, with two major announcements.First, as I have previously mentioned, Ancestry.com teamed up with Sorenson Genomics to offer DNA testing.The results of that testing can be, at the ownerâ€™s discretion, tied into a new DNA database as well as their massive collection of genealogical source materials.Hereâ€™s the official announcement from PRNewswire: â€œAncestry.com Enters DNA Genealogy Field Through Exclusive Partnership With Sorenson Genomics: Combines Three Major Pillars of Family History Research – Historical Records, DNA and Family Trees.â€Hereâ€™s another blurb at Family Tree Magazine.According to one source (CNET News), the $200 test will examine both Y DNA and mtDNA, but that hasnâ€™t been confirmed.It only makes sense to test both, however, especially at that price.
The following is an interview with Katherine Hope Borges, founder of ISOGG (The International Society of Genetic Genealogy), done at the 2007 SoCal Genealogical Jamboree. ISOGG has about 5,000 members and is growing rapidly. ISOGG has MANY great services on their website, including the “Founding Fathers DNA Page”, and an up-coming Presidential DNA page.
If you liked the video, there are lots more at Roots Television!! If you’re interested in genetic genealogy and haven’t checked out Roots Television yet, you don’t know what you’re missing.
Ancestry.com, one of the largest online sources of family trees and genealogy source material, is teaming up with Sorenson Genomics to offer DNA testing.
Ancestry.com has more than 14 million users, meaning that genetic genealogy will be introduced to a huge new group of individuals. Additionally, Ancestry can use the results of this testing to enhance the other databases they already offer – something that the other big testing companies lack.
An article in yesterdayâ€™s Mount Vernon News highlighted the use of genetic genealogy to identify POWâ€™s from the Korean War who had died in North Korean detention facilities.
The Korean War Project, sponsored by the Department of Defense, uses genetic tests, especially mtDNA (because mtDNA is so hardy), to match remains to living family members. This type of identification has been used for years now.
One of the volunteers for the Project, Carol Kiley, has found 21 matches in the three months sheâ€™s been tracking down families.Ms. Kiley says that her background in genealogy helps her locate the families of missing soliders.
The article discusses the case of Pvt. Robert Wayne McNeil who served in F Company of the 7th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division.He was captured as a POW on April 25, 1951, and died thereafter.Remains have been discovered that might be McNeilâ€™s, and Ms. Kiley is attempting to locate a sister, niece, or female cousin for mtDNA testing.
James Stuart, known as King James VI in Scotland and King James the I in England and Ireland, issued an edict in 1603 that abolished the surname MacGregor and declared that everyone named MacGregor or Gregor must renounce the name or suffer death, all in response to the murder of the King’s Forester, who himself had hanged some MacGregors for poaching. A bounty of 1,000 merks (apparently a great deal of money) was placed on the heads of the clan leaders, with 100 merks for other members of the clan.
This the origin of Rob Roy, also known as Red MacGregor, or Robert Roy MacGregor. For the next 200 years The Clan Gregor endured this persecution. Men were killed while women and children were sold into slavery in the New World. Finally, in 1774, the Act of Proscription against the clan was repealed.
A study conducted by researchers at the Institute of Human Genetics at the Center for Life in Newcastle, Englanddiscovered that only 50% of males with the last name Robson can be traced back to a recent single ancestor.The research, commissioned to create a new exhibit called â€œThe Robson Encyclopedia,â€ compared 12 markers from the Y-chromosomes of 100 male volunteer Robsons.
Apparently the Border Reiver clan of the Robsons in the TyneValley was notorious in the 1600â€™s and was made famous in a book called â€œThe Steel Bonnetsâ€ by George MacDonald Fraser.According to one site:
â€œThe term Border Reivers describes a number of English and Scottish families who fought a seemingly endless series of bloody confrontations from the 13th Century to the mid 17th Century. Sheep stealing and burning each otherâ€™s homes were part of everyday Border Reiver life – they were rugged, tough people who lived by their own laws.â€
Yesterday The Jewish Press announced the â€œKohen and Levi Conference: A Gathering of the Tribe.â€The conference, to be held on July 15-19, 2007, is hosted in Jerusalem by The Center for Kohanim.The Center was founded in 1985 to â€œpromote identity and knowledge among Kohanim the world over, and increase their feelings of awareness and commitment to their heritage as Kohanim.â€The conference has a main page, a press release, and a brochure (pdf).According to the press release:
Recent scientific research and DNA testing has proven that todayâ€™s descendents of the biblical Kohanim are genetically related. Molecular geneticists have discovered the â€œCohen Modal Haplotypeâ€ which is a Y- chromosome DNA lineage signature shared by a majority of both Ashkenazi and Sephardi Kohanim. This indicates a direct patrilineal descent of present-day Kohanim from a single ancient ancestor, genetically dated to have lived approximately 3,300 years ago, a time corresponding to the Exodus from Egypt.
I just wanted to take a moment to send a big thank you to everyone that reads The Genetic Genealogist and to all those who have linked here.I have a lot of posts percolating in my head, so be sure to stick around.And if you link to me on your blog, just send me an email (see here) and I will be sure to acknowledge you!
EyeonDNA has an ongoing series looking at geeky lab t-shirts. I contributed a picture of my own geeky t-shirt for the series.
DNA Direct thanked me for the link to the BaylorUniversityPress Release regarding the presentation of James Watsonâ€™s genome.
Peter Suber, author of Open Access News, also included a link to my article about James Watsonâ€™s genome.
business|bytes|genes|molecules (bbgm) reviewed the recent developments related to 23andMe in a post called â€œGoogley bioâ€ and linked to my article “23andMe Revisited.â€œ
For those of you unfamiliar with Postgenomic, I highly recommend visiting.According to the site, it â€œcollects posts from hundreds of science blogs and then does useful and interesting things with that data.â€I just joined recently, and the great thing about Postgenomic is that it joins stories together by subject.For instance, I have posts that are related to recent topics, here and here.
Genomicron discusses Nicholas Wadeâ€™s incorrect terminology in his New York Times article â€œGenome of DNA Discoverer is Deciphered.â€I mentioned recently that Wade may or maynot have had a choice in the title, but as Genomicron counters the entire article was flawed and Wade has had this problem in the past.
The Genetics Education Center at the University of KansasMedicalCenter.This site, aimed at educators who want to learn more about the human genome, is actually a great site for anyone interested in genetics!Iâ€™m planning on mining it for information myself, and if I find anything interesting I will be sure to share it with you.
EyeonDNA included the series in the recent 8th edition of Gene Genie.There are a lot of great authors in this list of articles! EyeonDNA had also mentioned the series in a previous post requesting submissions for the Gene Genie!
Every Saturday, Scienceroll