I would have guessed more – “Americans Consume 34GB of Content a Day” at Lifehacker – http://tinyurl.com/yl8y6hc
I would have guessed more – “Americans Consume 34GB of Content a Day” at Lifehacker – http://tinyurl.com/yl8y6hc
DAVIDE at the European Genetics and Anthropology Blog has an interesting post regarding 23andMeâ€™s Ancestry Painting, at â€œTaking a closer look at your inter-continental ancestry results at 23andMe.â€Â In the post, he describes how to â€œrummage through the Flash data behind the “Ancestry Painting” presentationâ€ to learn more about the SNPs involved an admixed Ancestry Painting.Â The post includes the incredibly simple directions:
First of all, you have to make sure you’ve got the free Firebug plug-in installed. Right click on the little bug in the lower-right corner of your browser window, and choose “Enable all panels”.Â Then left click the same bug icon, which should make a whole new section appear at the bottom of the screen.
Go to the “Ancestry Painting” page, and wait till it loads up your “Chromosome View”.Â Once it does, select “Response”, and you should get the following link in bold within your new section: POST https://www.23andme.com/you/fetchpaint.Â Click on it and the desired data should appear.
Hacking My Results:
Letâ€™s use the technique to look at my own results (as Iâ€™ve mentioned before, Iâ€™m not concerned about sharing my results publicly).Â Here is a snapshot of my Ancestry Painting:
And here are my results using the Firebug plug-in:
According to the Ancestry Painting (and now the Firebug results), I have Asian segments on chromosomes 2, 6, 10-13, and 17-19, with chromosome 6 being the most admixed.Â I also have African segments on chromosomes 6 and 12 (In his post, DAVIDE explains why the â€œYâ€ stands for African ancestry and the â€œCâ€ stands for Asian ancestry.):
So, for example, my largest Asian segment begins at position 218458622 on one of my chromosome 2 and ends at 239581072.
Yet another interesting tool to use with your 23andMe results.
Whit Athey has announced publication of the Fall 2009 issue of the Journal of Genetic Genealogy.Â This is Whitâ€™s last issue as Editor, and Iâ€™d like to extend my sincere appreciation to him and all the work he has put into JoGG over the past 5 years.Â Every issue requires hours of work to coordinate reviews and format articles, among the many other aspects of publishing.Â Whitâ€™s tireless work has helped add so much to the field.
Iâ€™d also like to announce that with Whitâ€™s departure I will be assuming the position of Editor of JoGG.Â Iâ€™m excited about this endeavor, and I look forward to working with the members of JoGG as well as the authors of the most recent research in the field.Â So, if you have an article or even just an idea for an article youâ€™d like to discuss, please fee free to contact me (blaine_5 at hotmail.com, or blainebettinger at gmail.com).
The Fall 2009 Issue
Included in the Fall 2009 issue are the following articles:
Special Section: Cluster Analysis and the TMRCA Problem
Familybuilder, launched in 2007, is a genealogy company that ranks among the top 10 online genealogy services in the world with over 17 million users and over 120 million family tree profiles.Â Late last year the company began offering a genetic genealogy product, as I wrote about here on the blog (see â€œFamilybuilder Announces DNA Testingâ€).
Disclosure: This is a review of Familybuilderâ€™s Y-DNA service using a kit I received free of charge for purposes of this review.Â Please note that this is not meant to be an endorsement but merely a review of the Y-DNA service offered by Familybuilder.
The results of a Familybuilder Y-DNA test includes:
â€œThe Migration Map for you and your ancestors, your 17 Markers, your Haplogroup and the History of your DNA.Â In addition, the ability to share your results with family and friends on social networks such as Facebook and MySpace as well as a downloadable PDF (suitable for framing).â€
I received the following kit in the mail for the Y-DNA testing, which included a swab, detailed instructions, and a return envelope:
Since I have already tested my Y-DNA, I asked a male relative to take this Y-DNA test.Â This surname, Conger, is believed to have originated with a John Belconger who emigrated in 1665 from Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England to Newbury, Massachusetts and later Woodbridge, New Jersey.Â Although there are likely many descendants of John Belconger in the United States, as far as I know there is only one other Conger who has undergone genetic genealogy testing, as discussed below.
After roughly four weeks, I received an email from Familybuilder that my DNA test results were ready (although my name is listed, these are a relativeâ€™s results, not mine).Â Not surprisingly since the surname appears to have originated in Western Europe, the Y-DNA belongs to Haplogroup R:
With the results, Familybuilder included information about the predicted haplogroup.Â The description for Haplogroup R, for example, includes the following snippets:
â€œORIGIN â€“ Haplogroup R descended from Haplogroup P (M45) in Central Asia.Â About 30,000 years ago, one of the tribes in Central Asia moved towards the European subcontinent.Â It is in this group that the first M207 mutation (Haplogroup R) occurred.â€
â€œMIGRATION AND SPREAD â€“ The highest frequency of Haplogroup R is found in Western Europe, where populations carrying R1b typically reach 75% frequency.â€
Familybuilder also compares an individualâ€™s results to results in their database in order to discover potential matches.Â Unfortunately, as shown below, there were no matches with the Conger Y-DNA profile from the Familybuilder database:
Since there were no results in the database, I entered the results into Ysearch to potentially identify matches (see Ysearch User ID 4KTQB).Â A search for matches with a genetic distance of 0 among people who tested at least 13 of the same markers turned up 19 matches, although none with the same â€œCongerâ€ surname.Â Outside of the United States, the most distant male ancestors for these matches are mostly from the U.K.
Interestingly, there is another Conger in the Ysearch database (User ID 4MSTZ), but his Y-DNA belongs to Haplogroup J2.Â With these two tests, therefore, we have shown for the first time that not all Congers in the U.S. are descended from the same man.
Familybuilder also offers a â€œPrint My DNAâ€ and â€œShare My DNAâ€ features, which allow users to share their results with friends and family.Â The Share My DNA feature formats the results, for example, for easy posting to websites or social media such as Facebook.Â See the following link for a nice display of the Conger results.
Lastly, Familybuilder also offers a new â€œGroupsâ€ feature as of October of 2009.Â From the recent press release:
â€œFamilybuilder DNA has added a new feature within their ancestral DNA Test Kits called DNA Groups. This feature allows consumers to create and manage their own groups based on commonalities such as a shared haplogroup, surname, national origin or current location. With DNA tests being a major tool for people searching for more information on their family histories, this feature takes the collaborative nature of genealogists to a digital forum. “By creating groups, users can collaborate with one another to piece together their family stories,” said Ilya Nikolayev, CEO of Familybuilder. Recently adding a DNA Matching Tool, this new feature allows consumers to engage with one another in new ways beyond traditional genealogical mechanisms.â€
A Familybuilder Y-DNA test normally costs $59.95.Â Familybuilder uses a state-of-the-art laboratory facility with ISO/IEC and ASCLD Lab Accreditation for testing.
I’m a man who recently took a 23andMe test, and I have a question about Relative Finder. Another man who I match on 36 of 37 Y-DNA markers via Family Tree DNA also took a 23andMe test. We believe that we are third cousins, but this individual does not show up as related in Relative Finder, nor does he show any similarities in the Family Inheritance section. Does this mean that we are not related at all?
If two individuals do not share any DNA in the Family Inheritance section of 23andMe or do not appear as relatives in Relative Finder, this absolutely does not mean that they are not or cannot be relatives. It does suggest, however, that the two individuals might not share any DNA. Although your Y-DNA test suggests that you share a recent common male ancestor, it appears that apart from your Y chromosomes you do not share any other DNA.
DNA is randomly passed down from generation to generation. A parent does not pass on their entire genetic makeup to a child; as a result, bits and pieces of DNA are lost in each generation.
Cousins will only share DNA if they happen to have randomly inherited that DNA from their shared ancestors. With each generation that separates the cousins, the probability that they share DNA decreases, because with every generation it is more likely that they will not inherit DNA from their ever-more-remote shared ancestors.
Third cousins, for example, share only 2 of their 16 ancestors at 4 generations. In this example, it appears that those two ancestors did not contribute an identical segment to both you and your third cousin. Interestingly, it is possible that both you and your cousin have segments of DNA from these ancestors, but they wouldn’t show up as a match in Family Inheritance or Relative Finder unless they were the same segment of DNA.
Also keep in mind that a 23andMe test is only comparing those sections of the DNA that are examined by the test; a whole-genome test, currently not available to consumers (at least at an affordable price), is the only test that can compare an individual’s entire DNA makeup to another’s.
Two Family Trees
In reality, everyone has two family trees. The first is a Genealogical Tree, which is every ancestor in history that had a child who had a child who had a child that ultimately led to you. Every decision made by every person in that tree contributed to who and what you are today.
However, not every person in that tree contributed a segment of your DNA sequence (because of random inheritance, as discussed above). As a result, we have a second family tree - a Genetic Tree – which is a tree that contains only those ancestors who contributed to our DNA. No one has yet been able to construct their Genetic Tree, but soon it will be a reality thanks to advances in genetic sequencing and comparison such Relative Finder. These tools are using relatedness between people living today to deduce the inheritance of DNA from people who have been dead for centuries.
I have many questions about Genetic Trees that I’m looking forward to answering with new tools in the future, including the following:
What questions about Genetic Trees can you come up with?
EDIT (22 September 2013): I’m adding the figures below to further help people understand the concept of a Genealogical Family Tree versus the Genetic Family Tree. Note that the Genetic Family Tree illustrates a concept rather than an exact representation of someone’s actual genetic family tree. The Genealogical Family Tree contains ALL of your biological ancestors: The Genetic Family Tree contains a small subset of your biological ancestors: Due to the nature of the Genealogical versus the Genetic Family Tree, entire populations, ancestors, and ethnicities are regularly lost entirely from your DNA! For example, in the following example of a Genetic Family Tree, the ethnicity in blue below is NOT part of the tree, and therefore would not be detected by a DNA test.
I’ve been playing with 23andMe’s Relative Finder this week, since it’s now in open beta. It’s been interesting hearing from 6th to 10th cousins from around the world, and we’re working to find ancestors in common. I’m looking forward to identifying – for the first time – a piece of autosomal DNA that came from a specific ancestor.
While in the beta period, the number of relatives is limited to 1000 (I currently have 173 with only 5 in the 3rd to 7th cousin range), and you can only contact other people who have opted in for the beta test. So if you have a 23andMe account, please opt in to the beta test via the following instructions (kind provided by Ann Turner):
1. Open the page https://www.23andme.com/user/profile/ and check the checkbox near “Name:” and click on the blue “Save Changes” button.
2. Open the page https://www.23andme.com/user/edit/privacy/ and UNcheck the checkbox near “I do not want to receive sharing invitations from anyone.”
3. Open the page https://www.23andme.com/you/relfinder/ and check the checkbox near “Highlight my profile in Relative Finder to show that I’m interested in making connections with potential relatives.”
Ann also wisely suggested expanding your profile to include information that will help other users find a genealogical connection. Since the profiles are searchable by keyword, and she recommends including any special interests (regional/ethnic/etc) in the profile. Like Ann, I included information about my genealogy back to 6 generations in my profile. Hopefully it will help my genetic relatives find a match.
Lastly, if you have any success stories using Relative Finder, please leave a comment below or email me. I’m always looking to highlight success stories or learn more about how an autosomal matching service can help people in their research.
Congratulations Megan, and great work!
ISOGG, the International Society of Genetic Genealogy, has a â€œSuccess Storiesâ€ page where it posts short summaries of just a few the many successes that genetic genealogy has helped people achieve.Â Today I noticed that there are several new summaries regarding â€œAutosomal DNA Successes,â€ both of which were the result of 23andMeâ€™s new Relative Finder (currently still in beta testing).
As I recently wrote, Relative Finder is a feature at 23andMe that allows users to compare their autosomal DNA to the autosomal DNA of others to potentially find cousins.Â This has long been done with Y-DNA and mtDNA, but this is one of the first times this has been done with autosomal DNA.
Success Story #1
The first success story is from someone who used Relative Finder to identify a huge number of potential cousins.Â After connecting one of his or her potential 4th cousins, the individuals discovered that they have similar surnames from a certain location in common (in addition to DNA on chromosomes 3 and 10).Â This individual also wisely noted that s/he now has â€œa good idea of the path that two of my DNA segments took through my pedigree to get to me.”Â This is something I wrote about recently in â€œThe Future of Genetic Genealogy â€“ Tracing DNA To Individual Ancestors.â€
Success Story #2 â€“ A First?
The second success story is about two Relative Finder users who worked together to identify a line that they had in common, potentially identifying segments of DNA passed to them from a couple who were born in the 1730â€™s.Â This is a very interesting result, and I wonder if it is the first time that genealogists have identified a segment of DNA that they inherited from distant autosomal ancestors (i.e. not their Y-DNA or mtDNA lines) outside of the medical realm.
I know Iâ€™ve mentioned this a great deal lately, but I again emphasize that geneticists and genealogists will be seeing much more of this type of success story in the future.
In the May 2010 issue of Family Tree Magazine, the editors will name the 40 Best Genealogy Blogs.Â Last month many of my readers nominated this blog for the list, which I appreciate greatly!
As of today you can vote to narrow down the top 130 nominated blogs to about 80 blogs, which the editors will then reduce to 40.Â The blogs have been placed into 10 different categories.Â There is more information about the categories and blogs here.
If you have a moment, please feel free to vote for The Genetic Genealogist in the genetic genealogy category!Â Voting takes place from October 5th through November 5th, and you can vote as often as you like.Â Thank you!