The results of a Y-DNA test are either a string of plusses and minuses, or a series of numbers.The plusses and minuses are the result of a SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) test and denote the testeeâ€™s Haplogroup, while the string of numbers are the result of a STR (short tandem repeat) test and denote the testeeâ€™s haplotype.
To learn more oneâ€™s haplotype, or to compare it to otherâ€™s results, most people enter those results into a database such as Ysearch, Ybase, SMGF, YHRD, or the Y-STR Database.To do this, however, it is sometimes necessary to â€˜normalizeâ€™ the numbers.For instance, one testing company might find a result of 27 for DYS481 while another finds a result of 23 on the same individual.This is typically due to different sequencing primers used by each company to characterize each particular STR.
Dogs, just like humans, have interesting genealogical histories.And a new DNA test unveiled by DNAPrint Genomics will help you examine your dogâ€™s genetic past.The test is aimed at uncovering the relative percentages of four ancient ancestral breeds in a modern dog â€“ wolf-like, herders, hunters, and mastiff.The test, which will retail for $99, examines 204 canine Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) in the dog genome.For more information, go to www.doggiednaprint.com (not working as of 08/18).
â€œThe test will contain a consent form, mouth swabs, swab envelope, as well as a return envelope.Simply fill out the consent form, follow the step-by-step cheek swab instructions and send the completed consent forms and test swabs in the enclosed return envelope. Within six to nine weeks, participants will receive the results of their dog’s DNA test. These will include raw genetic data, a graphic depiction of the animal’s DNA plus information on how to interpret the results of this DNA test.â€
An article in today’s New York Times discusses some of the major players in genealogy, including the Generations Network, a brief mention of DNA testing, and the Family History Library in Utah.
Although the article, “Latest Genealogy Tools Create a Need to Know” is hardly groundbreaking or thorough, it might be interesting to those who are new to genealogy.
One of the steps in analyzing the results of a Y-DNA test is to search through Y-DNA databases to look for potential matches. These matches, depending on how well they match, might be relatives, either close or distant (in recent genealogical terms – we’re all distantly related, of course).
One of those databases is YHRD (Y-STR haplotype reference database). The project has two main goals:
The generation of reliable Y-STR haplotype frequency estimates for minimal and extended Y-STR haplotypes to be used in the quantitative assessment of matches in forensic and genealogical casework, and;
The assessment of male population stratification among world-wide populations as far as reflected by Y-STR haplotype frequency distributions
According to the YHRD website:
“To this end, a growing number of diagnostic and research laboratories have joined in a collaborative effort to collect population data and to create a sufficiently large reference database. All institutions contributing in this project, participated in an obligate quality control exercise.
“This database is interactive and allows the user the search for Y-STR haplotypes in various formats and within specified metapopulations. Related information i.e. STR characteristics, mutations, population genetic analyses etc. is documented.”
Come meet Megan Smolenyak Smolenyak, Dick Eastman and a special surprise guest (on opening day) in Fort Wayne, Indiana at the Grand Wayne Convention Center, 120 West Jefferson Blvd. Throughout the conference, we’ll feature the latest and greatest programs from the Roots Television website. Visit us to be among the first to learn about our Societies & Libraries contest ($1,000 prize to the winning organization!) and to watch Dick Eastman and our surprise guest conduct interviews (or maybe even be interviewed yourself!). Be sure to come by to share in the excitement!
Welcome to edition #13 of the Gene Genie. There were many interesting and exciting submissions for this issue, so I hope you do a little exploring and learn something new about genes, personal genetics, and personalized medicine.
Splicing Genes.Letâ€™s start off with something fun.I donâ€™t know if weâ€™ll ever try to splice our genes with those from famous or successful people, but hereâ€™s at least one conversation that might result!
“The Y-chromosome test looks at 96 key single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to determine your paternal haplogroup. Your report includes a phylogenetic tree of global Y-chromosome haplogroups. The SNP assays are carried out in collaboration with Marligen Biosciences, a leader in the development of cutting edge multiplex assays.”
“These kits employ a two tiered strategy that efficiently detects 96 polymorphic markers in multiplexed PCR and detection reactions. Samples are first analyzed with a screening multiplex (A-R) that determines the major haplotype group of each sample. Subsequently, samples are analyzed with one of the haplogroup-specific multiplexes (AB, CD, E, FGHI, J, KLMN, O1, O2, PQ, R1 or R2) to determine the precise haplotype of each sample.”
Yesterday I wrote about a study that used SNPs to haplotype the Y chromosomes of ancient DNA obtained from skeletons found along the Yangtze River in China.The ability to extract and use SNP data from ancient Y-DNA is a relatively new scientific development.Indeed, the authorâ€™s of the study I highlighted yesterday stated: â€œThe first reported ancient Y SNP data was typed from a Native American sample of an extinct tribe (Kuch et al. 2007).â€I thought Iâ€™d briefly mention this earlier study as well since it contains a lot of interesting information.
The Beothuk were a Native American group that lived on Newfoundland at the time of John Cabotâ€™s arrival in 1497.Although estimates vary widely, they may have been as few as 500 to 1000 individuals.The Beothuk avoided Europeans, and eventually disease and conflict led to their extinction in the 1820s.